III. The second five-year legal popularization education work

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  The main characteristic of the second five-year legal popularization education work was taking Constitution as the centre, taking professional law as the emphasis. After the first five-year, how the legal publicity education work went into, became the problem social public concerning. At the beginning of 1990, the Total Secretary Jiang Zeming emphasized:" One of our important missions is to popularize the common legal knowledge, carrying on the legal education to the all people, raising the law consciousness of our nation." indicated the thinking way of work and direction for the legal popularization in time. Since the second half of 1990 the Central Publicity Department, Ministry of Justice constituted the investigation team carrying on extensive and thorough inquisition, convening more than ten symposiums, asking for the opinion from more than 30 departments, bureaus and partial provinces, cities, then drafted (draft) in the end of 1990, and handed over the third national legal publicity education working conference to discuss and research.


  In December 1990, the Central Committee of CPC and State Council delivered the in the form of (1990) 20th document, the 18th meeting of the seventh National People's Congress in March of 1991 passed < the decision concerning developing the legal publicity education thoroughly >. Immediately, in mid-March of 1991, convened the experience exchange meeting concerning the whole country enacting the second five-year program in Peking, exchanging the experience and way of establishing and carrying out the program, made the further thought mobilization, and undrew the prelude of the second five-year program. Before long, in order to adapt the demand, established the National Popularizing Common Legal Knowledge Office, Cai cheng, Minister of Justice served as the director, Liu Zhongdei, Vice Minister of CPD and Guo Dezhi the Vice Minister of Justice served as the vice director.1991 was the start year of the"2*5" program, mainly made preparation work well for the "2*5" program implementation, studied the two books < the Talk about Constitution of People's Republic of China >,< the Talk about socialism legal system some questions > compiled by the CPD and the Judiciary for letting large cadres understand Deng Xiaoping's democratic legal thought and the legal construction fundamental policy of party and nation in the new history period, realized that the importance of implementation of rule-by-law and the long-term legal publicity education, strengthened the consciousness of cadres to learn law and work well. From the second half of 1991 to the middle of 1992, more than 90% of the cadres attended studying the two books which as the teaching material for the cadres of governments and enterprises to study, published 5,500,000 totally, received better studying effect. "2*5" program which took constitution as center and with profession law as emphasis compared to"1*5" program required higher request, the content was extensive, more layer object, organizing work more difficultly. Therefore, in this year, according to the Central request, each section and area, combining the fact, earnestly established the concrete implementation program, central and national organs and total 96 sections of Chinese People's Liberation Army and the Armed Police Troops established and delivered their programs, the provinces and 95% of the following city, county also established and delivered their programs; Most provinces and more than 40 ministries of the central and national organs re-adjusted and strengthened the leading organization, each ministry compiled the teaching material for the staff's study, trained the preaching cadres at the same time, only the CPD , Ministry of Justice and the two working committees of central and national organs trained more than 400 persons for each section and area. Moreover, according to the incomplete statistic, the whole country had experiment point about ten thousand with each layer and section. All these preparations founded a good foundation for the implementation of "2*5"program.


  With the current Constitution promulgated ten anniversaries chance, Ministry of Justice and the Office of National People's Congress united to send out the notice of the publicity arrangement activity, the various levels local authorities of justice administration and departments concerned together, again developed the large-scale activities of studying and publicizing constitution within the scope of the whole nation, most province, autonomous region, municipalities convened the memorial conference, developed the constitution publicity month, publicity week and publicity day activity, only Hebei province organized constitution knowledge contest in which about 2,400,000 persons attended. At the beginning of 1993, the first conference of the eighth NPC passed the constitution amendment, immediately the Ministry of Justice made the studying and publicizing deployment again, and compiled the new reading book of constitution talk.


  Since the second half year of 1992, each section and system changed the work center to profession law direction. In the following two years," two positivity " of the legal publicity supervisory organ and the profession law supervisory section exerted together, the profession law study of the whole country was continuously thorough. Industry and Business, Tax administration, Maritime Customs, Land, Environmental Protection, Water Conservancy, Forestry, Business, Public Finance, Personnel, Education, Railway, the Broadcast Movie Television, Hygiene, Construction, Post and Tele, Electronics etc. section, all adopted various ways, pushed the profession law study completely. Tens of thousands of cadres above regiment-level of the Chinese People's Liberation Army took the lead to speak legal lesson for the troop cadres and warriors. Many sections grasped the study of the professional law in the light of kind of vocational study and the post trainings, regarding as to adapt the market economy system demand, the reform measure of the change lead management method to grasp, as a result, the self-conscious of grasping the professional law study became higher, the measures were powerful, obtaining better actual result. At the same time, < the Regulation of Industrial Enterprises Owned by the People Transforming Management Mechanism > was included in"2*5"program by the National Legal Publicity Office, compiled the teaching material, recorded the special subject television and organized and held various training class and lecture, emphatically carried on the publicity study toward political organs, economic supervisory sections and enterprises. This work changed the leader's idea, pushed forward the business enterprise system reform, exerted the positive function. In May and October, 1992 the National Legal Publicity Office convened the local and Central National organs"2*5" program report meeting in the Harbin and Peking respectively, putting forward taking the market economy law knowledge as key of the professional law, enlarging the strength, of publicity and education, with adapting the demand of the socialism market economy system development, further moderated the progress of the whole country to study the profession law.


  This period another work particular emphasis of legal publicity supervisory organization of the all levels place was as the request of< The Decision of Central Committee of CPC concerning that further strengthening the village work>, combining the village's "two civilization" construction and the socialism education activity, going deeply in to carry on the work in village. Many a few regions matched village social education, aiming at the actual problem of the village, developed the publicity education of the Land Management law, Water law, the planned parenthood regulation etc. related to production, life of farmers; In the restructuring activity of the village organization, carried on the study and the education of the Villager's Committee Organic law. These activities pushed the normative management of various works of village maximumly.


  The first three years of "2*5" program, the work managed by law obtained the great progress. Many places and sections had already been self-conscious to promote using law with learning law, deepening the legal publicity with using law. Governing the city by law, governing the county by law, governing the profession and the army by law along with governing the factory and village by law of basic level...etc. these activities contained further development. To the end of 1993, there were 29 provinces, autonomous regions, direct jurisdiction cities in whole country developed the work of governing the city by law; The provincial cities and the regional cities which the Party Committee, People' Congress, the Government made resolutions and established the implementing project, putting forward and developing governing the city by law formally already attained to113, 120 county-class Cities, about 40% of the national city total amount; About more than 600 Counties(Districts) developed formally the work of governing by law. The province of Liaoning, Peking City also made the decision of governing the province, city by law. More than two years, the whole country emerged several ten thousand various basic level experimental units being managed by law, most big and medium sized business enterprises, towns and villages developed the activity of being managed by law. In June 1991, Ministry of Justice, CPD and Nation System Reform Committee in Anshan of Liaoning convened the experience exchange meeting of 100 large business enterprises of whole country learning and using the law, summarized and expanded a large quantity of typical experience of managing the factory by law, putting forward the mission of managing factory by law; In August 1992, the CPD associated with Central Policy Laboratory, Domestic Affairs Department, the Ministry of Justice convened the experience exchange meeting of managing the village by law and democracy management in Shandong, expanded the experience of Zhangqiu County about democracy management ,setting up and managing village by law. In May 1993, the Ministry of Justice convened the third partial cities symposium about learning and using the law, full exchanged and discussed the way and the road how to strengthen the city legal system construction, under the new situation of constructing the socialism market economy system.


  Through the thorough legal publicity education, the legal newspapers and magazines developed continuously, providing vast realm for the popularizing work. To the end of 1993, the legal newspapers and magazines of the national had already developed to 57, among them, 44 legal newspapers, 13 legal periodicals, the total issue quantity was already 6,500,000. At the same time, the legal literature work also made contributions greatly for the legal publicity work. Among national all levels literature show programs, the weight of the publicizing legal system became bigger and bigger. At the end of "1*5" and beginning of "2*5", the Ministry of Justice and the Broadcast, Movie, TV also held two legal literature" the gold sword prize" activity together, encouraging the advanced, strengthening the coordinative lead of the legal literature work.


  On August 30, 1993 Secretary of Justice Xiao Yang delivered < the report of the implementation circumstance concerning the second five-year program>to the third conference of the Standing Committee of NPC, made the review and summary to the three years. On September 23 to 26, 1993 CPD and Ministry of Justice convened whole country experience exchange meeting of"2*5" program in Hengyang city Hunan province, it was a summary and deployment meeting, which communicated the experience of each area, section and system, developed studying the professional law completely, established the thinking way of that around the establishment and develop of the socialism market economy system, fulfilled the"2*5" mission completely.


  1994 was the key year to complete"2*5" program, the National Legal Publicity Office put forward that the legal publicity education work tightly encircled the general situation of " hold tight the opportunity, turn the reform deeply, extend to open, promote development, keep stable", to complete the mission of the "2*5" program completely. Most regions, sections and systems had already entered the ending stage of "2*5"program, partial regions and sections had already entered the perfecting and checking stage. The Nation Statistic Bureau, Health Department, Mineral Department, Post and Tele Department, Forestry Department, Chemical Engineering Department, Water Conservancy Department, Jiangxi, Jilin, Guangdong and the Hebei etc. established the checking standard and way. Taking one with another, each area, section, each system combining the work fact, surrounding the center work of the party and nation, matched closely, made the "2*5" program develop throughly continuously, obtained many good experiences, emerged a lot of advanced model.


  This period, for adapting the request of socialism market economy establishment and development, the CPD and Ministry of Justic united to delivered , request that the all levels popularizing law supervisory section and the supervisory section of publicizing and educating professional law encircled normalizing market subject, protecting the market order, strengthening the macroscopical adjusting , promoting open outward, the perfecting social security and building up the modern business enterprise system and finance, tax system reform etc. aspects, grasped emphatically the publicity education work concerning the socialism market economy laws. Afterward, the national popularizing law office held the 10-days market economy laws high-class symposium in Peking, above associate professor preachers from each province, autonomous region, municipality attended the study and training.


  For the implementation of the request that above county leaders must study the legal knowledge, put forward by the fourth plenary of 14th Central Committee of CPC, according to the suggest of Ministry of Justice party set, Central Committee of CPC held the legal lecture twice on January 20,1995 and December 9, 1994, heard local famous experts to explain and < the Socialism Market Economy Legal system Problem >successively . Jiang Zeming, Lee Peng, Qiao Shi, Lee Ruihuan, Liu Huaqing, Hu Jintao etc. leaders listened the lesson. Jiang Zeming gave talks twice successively, full affirmed that leaders learning the law not only contributed to pushing forward the socialism market economy system establishment and the whole national legal system construction but also assured reform open and modern construction smoothly progress. He emphasized that the all levels leaders and staff must strengthen the self-conscious to study the law knowledge, and to form the institution, in addition to concentrating to hear one or two times legal lesson annually, still wanted to exert all levels party school and the staff school students' function full in teaching the law knowledge. The central leaders heard the legal lesson, which embodied the central leaders high valued and concerned the works of strengthening the legal system construction and legal publicity education, producing the extensive influence at home and abroad, promoting the national large staff's activity in learning the law.


  At the beginning of 1994, Central Politics and Law Committee, Central Publicity Department, Central Directly Affiliated Institutions Party Work Committee, National Organization party work Committee, the Judiciary united to hold the market economy legal lecture for the ministry-level leaders, most main leaders of ministry and the leads above bureau-level attended the legal lecture. Till the end of 1995, there are 29 provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities held the legal lecture for the lead. Many the city, county established the lecturer's regiment for the staff learning law, held a series of higher layer legal lecture, the staff learning and using law attained to further strengthen. In the medium and end of "2*5" program, the whole country works of governance based on law kept on developing healthily, the whole country near half of bureau-level Cities, county-level Cities developed the works of governance based on law, near 1/3 counties (district) formally developed the works of governance based on law, the profession managed by law, the work of grass-root managing the factory, street, school, store by law attained further development, especially large villages, carrying through the spirit of < The Notice concerning Strengthening the Village Grass-root Organization Construction > of Central Committee of CPC, extensively developed the activity of being set up by law , governing the village based on law, democracy management, continuously perfecting the villages election system, villages argument system, village affairs public system and the village rules or agreement system, the works of governance based on law had greatly development in wide or depth and obtained the obvious result. For communicating the grass-root legal publicity and works of governance based on law, on august 25 to 28,1994 the CPD and Ministry of Justice convened 100-county (city) legal publicity education working conference in Jilin city of province Jilin, summarized the legal publicity education works of the large grass-root since the beginning of "2*5" program, communicated the experience of that village developed the legal publicity education deeply and governance based on law, the grass-root regime and democracy construction, ascertained the basic mission of the grass-root legal publicity and governance based on law the following period. Through this meeting, legal publicity and the work of governance based on law everyplace moved forward a great step.


  1995 was the last year of the "2*5" program implementation, each area and section had done the checking work earnestly, providing the important assurance to complete the "2*5"program perfectly. At the beginning of February, the National Legal publicity Office convened the symposium of summarizing and checking the central and national organs professional law study, and delivered< the Notice Concerning doing the work of professional law study summarizing and checking well > in time, transmitting the checking project of "2*5" work of 7 ministries and 5 provinces, autonomous regions at the same time. Later on, the checking work of "2*5" legal dissemination was developed widely everyplace. Each province (district, city) and the profession systems all enacted and delivered the summarizing and checking project continuously. The leaders of Heilongjiang, Hebei, Shandong, Hunan, Guangxi etc. province, autonomous region took the lead to carry on the checking and accepting work in their affiliated cities, district and county. In Shanghai, more than 60 representatives of NPC or city constituted two checking teams to inspect, check and accept the "2*5" work of 23 professions or units. Of the Post and Tele Department, Mineral Department, Broadcasting Department, Construction Department, Forestry department, Chemical Engineering Department, the Weapon Head Office etc. section, commanded by the leaders, constituted some check teams to each big area to carry on emphases or sampling checks. In September 1995, the Standing Committee of National People's Congress constituted the enforcing and checking teams to Anhui, Sichuang, Hubei etc. carrying out the inspecting the performance circumstance of < the Decision concerning Carrying on the legal publicity education in the citizens >. To the end of September, partial regions and professions basically completed the checking and accepting work, more than 30 provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities and most professions reported their summarizing and checking report of "2*5" program to the national legal publicity office before the end of year. Seeing from the report circumstance of each section and area, at "3*5" period there were totally more than 800,000,000 educating object in the whole country attended the study, and near 300 laws and regulations totally were ascertained the study contents by the different sections and regions in the programming. From this, the "2*5" program was a more thorough and extensive legal knowledge publicity education activity based on the "1*5" program.


  At the end of "2*5" program, each area and section paid more attention to the legal news and the legal literatures, using the vivid legal news and literatures displayed the 10-year plenteous result, creating the good consensus atmosphere for the "3*5" program. In June 1994, the Ministry of justice convened the national legal literature publicity observing seminar, carrying on the beneficial study about how to organize and push the legal literature work availably. In March 1995,The period of National People's Congress and the third meeting of the eighth National Politics Negotiation Congress, the CPD, Ministry of Justice, the Cultural Department united to hold the first reporting and performing activity of partial provinces and cities legal literature programs, 7 programs given by 7 cities and provinces of Henan, Hunan, Shanxi, Zhejiang, Guangxi and Wuhan etc. were performed 14 times to representatives of NPC, committee men of NPNC and the capital audience. This was the first legal literature reporting and performing activity on the capital stage, with publicizing the main melody as the aim and with the legal topic as the content from the nation's foundation .The legal news publicity developed quickly, to the end of 1995, the national legal press association of China had already owned central and place 70 group members, only judicature system owned 107 legal newspapers and magazines, 1200 legal journalists. The legal publicity education supervisor section paid attention to strengthen contact with many news units, mobilizing the activity of large journalists to further do the legal news report well. When the "2*5" program end, the National Legal Publicity Office organized the large-scale legal publicity activity " Legal Publicity Going China ", constituted 3 interviewing and reporting team, with the travel route more than 20,000 kilometers, interviewed more than 30 advanced units of legal publicity and governance based on law, displayed the fruit of the 10-year toward the whole society.



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