II. the first five-year legal publicity education work (1986-1990)

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  With the form that five-year program, carrying on legal publicity education in all citizens, is a great unprecedented creation and important characteristic of the Socialist Legal System Construction. The main characteristic of the first five-year program is to enlighten and disseminate the common legal knowledge. No doubt, from 1986 to 1990, disseminating common legal knowledge to all citizens in 5 years was a great social project and also an important event in our socialist legal system construction history. It was put forward by Judiciary in order to carry out the 24th article of constitution, and carry out the mission of the legal publicity education which was put forward by the twelfth national representative congress of CPC, basing on the extensive investigation and long-term gestation.


  June 5 to 7,1984, Ministry of Justice convened the spot meeting of national legal publicity work at Benxi City Liaoning province recommending its work experience. Its prominent characteristic was that the secretary high valued the work, took the lead to learn law, with the function department to be good staff officer, made the work have content, plan and arrangement, and obtained prominent effect. The Secretary of Justice Zou yu firstly put forward the conceive to use about five years to disseminate the common legal knowledge to all citizens, it was affirmed by the Central Publicity Department and the Central Politics and Law Committee. Then Judiciary and the CPD used one year to investigate and research extensively, accepted many opinions and drafted a five-year legal publicity programming. On June 9 to 15, 1985 convened the first-time national legal publicity education conference together in Peking, discussed the first five-year programming.


  Secretary of Justice Zouyu firstly gave a talk about < struggling for the dissemination of common legal knowledge in all citizens in five years >. At the end, the secretary of Central Secretariat, the secretary of the Central Publicity Department Deng liqun made the meeting summary, the secretary of Central Secretariat, the secretary of the Central Politics and Law Committee Chen shengxian gave a importance talk. Central Committee of CPC, National People's Congress and State Council valued the meeting very much, the secretary of standing committee of National People's Congress Peng Zhen and other leaders received all representatives in People's Auditorium. The meeting was a general mobilization of dissemination of common legal knowledge actually, then through the further modification, the first five-year programming was reported the Central Committee of CPC and State Council.


  On November 5, 1985 the Central Committee of CPC and State Council approved the< The Five-year Programming concerning Dissemination of Common Legal Knowledge in All Citizens > of Central Publicity Department and the Judiciary, then made a notice; On November 22, the 13th meeting of the sixth NPC made the < Decision concerning Dissemination of Common Legal Knowledge in all Citizens >, It said that since 1986,We would struggle to disseminate e common legal knowledge to all citizens who had learning and accepting capability gradually in 5 years, and attain to disseminate usually and institutionally. Thus, deployed the studying mission toward whole party, whole army and people of whole country in the form of law. In the< The Five-year Programming concerning Dissemination of Common Legal Knowledge to All Citizens >, CPD and the Ministry of Justice made the explicit provision for the object, contents, method, step, the method of assess, standard, and organization, the leadership of publicity.


  < Programming > said that the object of the dissemination was workers, farmers, herding and fishing population, intellectuals, staff, students, soldiers, and other workers and the residents in town who had the ability to study; the basic contents was Constitution, Ethnic Regional Autonomy Law, Military Service Law, Penal Code, Criminal Procedure Law, General Rule of Civil Law, Civil Procedure Law (try out), Marriage Law, Inheriting Law, Economic Contract Law, the Public Order Management and Punishment statute ,In brief " ten laws and a statute ".


  This period, all levels justice administration organs in the whole country carried through the Benxi spirit actively, making a great deal of preparation for the popularization work. Mainly through publicizing and launching, trying out, enacting and perfecting the five-year programming, compiling the teaching material, training publicizing skeletons etc. For example, in 1985 New Year's Day, the Secretary of Justice Zouyu delivered the television talk toward whole country; for making large staff and crowd further understand the programming, Organized medias to publicize Benxi experience extensively; For pushing the preparation work of national dissemination of common legal knowledge, In January, 1985 the Judiciary convened the reporting meeting in which 11 experimental units attended of national dissemination of common legal knowledge in Peking; then compiled the reading book about common legal knowledge for officers , workers, farmers and staff etc. in order to solve the study material needed , basically satisfied the large staff and crowd's demand of the legal knowledge Through the above preparation work, since 1986, the work carried on widely organically, designedly, and resoundingly within the whole nation.


  In 1986, all levels leads taking the lead to learn the law was the prominent characteristic. The central leaders taking the lead to listen legal lessons, which became the example of the whole party and country in the aspect of learning and obeying the law. Since July of 1986, Central Secretariat of Central Committee of CCP held three times law knowledge lectures continuously for the central leaders. In the morning of July 3rd, at the Hall of Huairen in Central South Sea carrying on the first Lecture, Hu Yaobang , Qiao Shi, Lee Peng, Fang Yi , Tian Jiyun, Hu Qiaomu , Hu Qili, Yao Yilin, Chen Shengxian etc. and the main leaders of Central Discipline Committee, Central Office, Politics and Law department, Publicity department, and Municipal Committee Peking attended. It pushed the leads and staff of each area and section to learn the law strongly, also pushed the legal dissemination work of the whole country maximumly.


  To the end of 1986, five groups leaders of 29 provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities of whole country, heard the legal lesson successively. According to the statistic, 1381 province-level leaders attended in the study this period, attained to 90% of total staff amount. Many ministries and committees of the central and national organs all organized the staff above bureau chief studying center, three headquarters, each battalion area and each leading organ of Chinese People's Liberation Army started learning law activity successively. Since July 1986, CPD, Judiciary, Central Directly Affiliated Institutions, National Organs Work Committee united to hold the bureau chief studying legal knowledge class, about 520 persons attended. Then held the economic law series lecture, symbolized the dissemination work at the central and national organs began formally. In December, 1986 Central Publicity Department and Judiciary united to convene the second national legal publicity education working conference in Peking. It was an important meeting that would push the work better through exchanging experience.


  1987 and 1988 were two years that the legal dissemination work developed completely. According to the actual work progress, Central Publicity Department and Judiciary carried on the classifying guide to the each aspect and layer of the work. In May, 1987 entrusted by Central Committee, the Ministry of Justice convened the legal topic movie and teleplay work symposium, discussed the position and function of the legal topic movie and teleplay in the socialist legal publicity, and the tendency that should notice. In September and November, 1987 convened respectively three-north regions, southwest region work symposium, summarized and exchanged the work experience in minority regions, thus researched the profession and made corresponding deployment. January, 1988, Central Publicity Department, Economic Committee, Ministry of Justice convened the national enterprise legal publicity education work conference in Peking, studied and deployed that taking the enterprise management to the legalization orbit on the foundation of dissemination gradually, still decided that the owned-by- people enterprise further studied six regulations and ten laws around< the Business Enterprise Law>, after learning the prescriptive contents. March, 1988 the Nation Education Committee, Ministry of Justice convened the national colleges legal education experience exchanging meeting together in Changsha city Hunan province, summarized and communicated the legal education experience, and researched the lesson syllabus of which would be set up in colleges. May, 1988 CPD, Ministry of Justice convened the national village legal dissemination conference together, summarized and exchanged the work experience in villages, confirmed the concentrated education time, face-to-face, stressing the particular object etc. basic method. Through a series work and deployment, the work spreaded quickly in the whole nation. Especially with the development of dissemination work, staff and crowd's legal consciousness strengthening, appeared the governance based on law activity in different layers and scope, with Benxi City Liaoning province as the representative, some advanced cities started governance based on law, many enterprises also started managing the factory based on law. September, 1988 Ministry of Justice convened the first-time partial city mayors learning and using law symposium in Jiujiang city, more than 50 city mayors attended, communicated, studied and discussed the theories and practice problems, put forward the mission of governance based on law. Then, the work of managing the factory, school, village, country and profession by law, accompanied with the law dissemination. In December, 1988 the Secretary of Justice Cai Cheng delivered the special subject of legal dissemination report to NPC.


  In1989 and 1990 The first five-Year program went in to the evening, the mission of this two years was to complete the village mission steadily and to summary and check the work. According to the meeting spirit, everyplace strengthened the organic lead, took out the capable staff, adopted the concentrated way of time, object and lead's energy, organized the work brigade or the preach regiment, responsibility concretely carried out, made the national village legal publicity work attained the climax in 1988 and 1989, the mission before 1990 was basically completed. Since the first half year of 1990, each province, autonomous region, municipalities had enacted the checking way of level by level, from bottom to top and had checked each unit work. Heilongjiang, Shandong, Hunan, Guang dong, Guangxi, Jiangxi, Xinjiang were all that the province-level leaders took the lead, constituting the check regiment to carry on checking.


  Till the end of 1990, more than 700,000,000 persons had attended the legal dissemination study, about 93% of the total object amount (more than 750,000,000). Among them, the staff above county (regiment)-level about 480,000, general staff 9,500,000 attended it, and passed the examination and checking; Among the 120,000,000 owned-by-people enterprises staff, more than 100,000,000 attended it and passed the examination; Near 400,000,000 farmers attended the study, and respectively be checked by the Country (Town) Government or the Villagers Committee; more than 4,000,000 town residents attended the study, and passed examination; Chinese People's Liberation Army and the Armed Police Troops had already completed the mission in 1988 and 1987 respectively. National most school had set up the legal lesson, about 150,000,000 College, Middle, Primary students at school accepted the legal education; All levels party school and staff school also set up the legal education lesson or legal dissemination lectures.


  The basic result of the five-year summarized mainly two aspects: The first, the large cadres and crowd had studied" ten laws and a statute", filled up the blank of the law knowledge primarily, fruitfully completed the enlighten education of law knowledge to all citizens in the Chinese legal system construction history; The second, the large cadres and crowd started to establish and raise the socialist legal sense in different degrees, promoted the self-conscious of studying, using and protecting law, made the root of the socialist legal system go into the rich soil of large people gradually.



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